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Any selections you make in the Preferences dialog box are also saved in the preferences file. To ensure that what you see onscreen matches the images and instructions in this book, you should restore the default preferences as you begin each lesson. If you prefer to preserve your preferences, be aware that the tools, panels, and other settings in Photoshop CC may not match those described in this book.

If you have customized your color settings, use the following procedure to save them as a preset before you start work in this book. When you want to restore your color settings, you can simply select the preset you created.

To save your current color settings 1. Start Adobe Photoshop. The Save dialog box opens. The default location is the Settings folder, which is where you want to save your file. The default file extension is. Then click Save. In the Color Settings Comment dialog box, type any descriptive text that will help you identify the color settings later, such as the date, specific settings, or your workgroup.

To restore your color settings 1. From the Settings menu in the Color Settings dialog box, choose the settings file you noted or saved in the previous procedure, and click OK. Additional resources Adobe Photoshop CC Classroom in a Book release is not meant to replace documentation that comes with the program or to be a comprehensive reference for every feature.

Only the commands and options used in the lessons are explained in this book. For comprehensive information about program features and tutorials, refer to these resources: Adobe Photoshop Help and Support: helpx. Adobe Forums: forums. Adobe Photoshop CC product home page: adobe. Resources for educators: adobe. Find solutions for education at all levels, including free curricula that use an integrated approach to teaching Adobe software and can be used to prepare for the Adobe Certified Associate exams.

A directory of AATCs is available at training. This lesson will take about an hour to complete. If you need to restore the start files, download them from your Account page. To make the best use of the extensive editing capabilities in Photoshop, you must first learn to navigate the work area.

Starting to work in Adobe Photoshop The Adobe Photoshop work area includes menus, toolbars, and panels that give you quick access to a variety of tools and options for editing and adding elements to your image. You can also add commands and filters to the menus by installing third-party software known as plug-ins. In Photoshop, you primarily work with bitmapped, digitized images that is, continuoustone images that have been converted into a series of small squares, or picture elements, called pixels.

You can also work with vector graphics, which are drawings made of smooth lines that retain their crispness when scaled. When prompted, click Yes to confirm that you want to delete the Adobe Photoshop Settings file. The Photoshop work area appears as shown in the following illustration. Menu bar B. Options bar C. Tools panel D. Workspaces menu E.

Panels On Mac OS, the application frame keeps the image, panels, and menu bar together. The arrangement is similar on Windows, but operating system styles may vary. The default workspace in Photoshop consists of the menu bar and options bar at the top of the screen, the Tools panel on the left, and several open panels in the panel dock on the right.

When you have documents open, one or more image windows also appear, and you can display them at the same time using the tabbed interface. There is one main difference between the Photoshop work area on Windows and that on Mac OS: Windows always presents Photoshop in a contained window. Select the 01End. The 01End.

The end files in this book show you what you are creating in each project. Do not close Photoshop. Using the tools Photoshop provides an integrated set of tools for producing sophisticated graphics for print, web, and mobile viewing.

We could easily fill the entire book with details on the wealth of Photoshop tools and tool configurations. Every lesson will introduce you to more tools and ways to use them. Selecting and using a tool from the Tools panel The Tools panel is the long, narrow panel on the far left side of the work area. It contains selection tools, painting and editing tools, foreground- and background-color selection boxes, and viewing tools. The 01Start. Click the double arrows just above the Tools panel to toggle to a double-column view.

Click the double arrows again to return to a single-column Tools panel and use your screen space more efficiently. Examine the status bar at the bottom of the work area Windows or image window Mac OS , and notice the percentage that appears on the far left. This represents the current enlargement view of the image, or zoom level. Move the pointer over the Tools panel, and hover it over the magnifying-glass icon until a tool tip appears.

Click the Zoom tool icon in the Tools panel, or press Z to select it. Move the pointer over the image window. The pointer now looks like a tiny magnifying glass with a plus sign in the center of the glass.

Click anywhere in the image window. The image enlarges to a preset percentage level, which replaces the previous value in the status bar. Hold down the Alt key Windows or Option key Mac OS so that the Zoom tool pointer appears with a minus sign in the center of the magnifying glass , and then click anywhere in the image. Then release the Alt or Option key. Now the view zooms out to a lower preset magnification, so that you can see more of the image, but in less detail.

If Scrubby Zoom is selected in the options bar, click anywhere on the image and drag the Zoom tool to the right. The image enlarges.

Drag the Zoom tool to the left to zoom out. When Scrubby Zoom is selected, you can drag the Zoom tool across the image to zoom in and out. Note You can use other methods to zoom in and out. For example, when the Zoom tool is selected, you can select the Zoom In or Zoom Out mode on the options bar. Or, you can type a new percentage in the status bar and press Enter or Return. Then, using the Zoom tool, drag a rectangle to enclose part of the rose blossom.

The image enlarges so that the area you enclosed in your rectangle now fills the entire image window. Click Fit Screen in the options bar to see the entire image again. You have used the Zoom tool in four different ways to change the magnification in the image window: clicking, holding down a keyboard modifier while clicking, dragging to zoom in and out, and dragging to define a magnification area.

Many of the other tools in the Tools panel can be used with keyboard combinations and options as well. Zooming and scrolling with the Navigator panel The Navigator panel is another speedy way to make large changes in the zoom level, especially when the exact percentage of magnification is unimportant. The slider under the image thumbnail in the Navigator panel enlarges the image when you drag to the right toward the large mountain icon and reduces it when you drag to the left.

The red rectangular outline represents the area of the image that appears in the image window. When you zoom in far enough that the image window shows only part of the image, you can drag the red outline around the thumbnail area to see other areas of the image.

In the Layers panel, on the right side of the workspace, make sure the Rose layer is selected. In the Properties panel, move the Brightness slider to 98 and the Contrast slider to The image of the rose brightens. There is no right or wrong setting; the values you should use depend on the results you want. Adjustment layers let you make changes to your image, such as adjusting the brightness of the rose, without affecting the actual pixels.

Layering is one of the fundamental and most powerful features in Photoshop. Click the double arrows at the top of the Properties panel to close it. Saving the file with a different name ensures that the original file 01Start. That way, you can return to it if you want to start over. Your image is bright and punchy and ready for a birthday card.

Sampling a color By default, the foreground color in Photoshop is black and the background color is white. You can change the foreground and background colors in several ways. One way is to use the Eyedropper tool to sample a color from the image. In the Layers panel, click the Visibility column for the Ribbons layer to make the layer visible. When a layer is visible, an eye icon appears in that column. Select the Eyedropper tool in the Tools panel.

Click the blue area in the Happy Birthday ribbon to sample a blue color. The foreground color changes in the Tools panel and the Color panel. Anything you draw will be this color until you change the foreground color again. Working with tools and tool properties When you selected the Zoom tool in the previous exercise, you saw that the options bar provided ways for you to change the view of the current image window.

Using context menus Context menus are short menus that contain commands and options appropriate to specific elements in the work area. Usually, the commands on a context menu are also available in some other area of the user interface, but using the context menu can save time.

Select the Zoom tool , and zoom in so you can clearly see the lower third of the card. Select the Rectangular Marquee tool in the Tools panel. The Rectangular Marquee tool selects rectangular areas. See the illustration below. As you drag the tool, Photoshop displays the width and height of the selected area.

Selection areas are shown by moving dotted lines, sometimes referred to as marching ants. Select the Brush tool in the Tools panel. In the image window, right-click Windows or Control-click Mac OS anywhere in the image to open the Brush tool context menu. Context menus vary with their context, of course, so what appears can be a menu of commands or a panel-like set of options, which is what happens in this case. Select the first brush Soft Round , and change the size to 65 pixels.

Click anywhere outside the selection to close the panel. Note Clicking anywhere in the work area closes the context menu. Selecting and using a hidden tool Photoshop has many tools you can use to edit image files, but you will probably work with only a few of them at a time. The Tools panel arranges some of the tools in groups, with only one tool shown for each group. The other tools in the group are hidden behind that tool.

A small triangle in the lower right corner of a button is your clue that other tools are available but hidden under that tool. Position the pointer over the third tool from the top in the Tools panel until the tool tip appears.

The tool tip identifies the Lasso tool , with the keyboard shortcut L. Select the Lasso tool. With the Lasso tool, you can draw free-form selections; the Polygonal Lasso tool makes it easier to draw straight-edged sections of a selection border. Move the pointer over the left edge of the blue color bar that you just painted. Click just to the left of the upper left corner of the bar to start your selection.

You should begin your selection just outside the colored area. Click just to the left of the bottom left corner of the bar to create the second side of the triangle.

Click the point where you started to finish the triangle. Press the Delete key on your keyboard to delete the selected area from the colored bar, creating a notch for your ribbon. In the Tools panel, select the Horizontal Type tool. The buttons and menus in the options bar now relate to the Type tool.

In the options bar, select a font you like from the first pop-up menu. We used Minion Pro Italic, but you can use another font if you prefer. Specify 32 pt for the font size. You can specify 32 points by typing directly in the font-size text box and pressing Enter or Return, or by scrubbing the font-size menu label.

You can also choose a standard font size from the font-size pop-up menu. Click once anywhere on the left side of the colored bar, and type Elaine. Or you can type a different name, if you like. The text is the same color as the bar you typed it on. Alt-dragging Windows or Optiondragging Mac OS changes the values in smaller increments; Shift-dragging changes them in larger increments.

Using panels and panel menus The text color is the same as the Foreground Color swatch in the Tools panel, which is the blue color you used to paint the bar. Make sure the Horizontal Type tool is selected in the Tools panel. Drag the Horizontal Type tool across the text to select the full name. Select any light-colored swatch. We chose pastel yellow. Note When you move the pointer over the swatches, it temporarily changes into an eyedropper.

Set the tip of the eyedropper on the swatch you want, and click to select it. The color you select appears in three places: as the Foreground Color in the Tools panel, in the text color swatch in the options bar, and in the text you selected in the image window.

Select another tool in the Tools panel, such as the Move tool , to deselect the text so that you can see the text color. Click the menu button on the Swatches panel to open the panel menu, and choose Small List. Select the Type tool and reselect the text, as you did in steps 1 and 2.

In the Swatches panel, scroll about halfway down the list to find the Light Yellow Orange swatch, and then select it. Select the Move tool again to deselect the text. Now the text appears in the orange color. Typing V will add the letter to your text in the image window.

For the real world, Photoshop gives you the power to step back and undo actions so that. You can experiment freely, knowing that you can reverse the process. Even beginning computer users quickly come to appreciate the familiar Undo command. The name returns to its previous color.

The Undo command in Photoshop reverses only one step. This is a practicality, because Photoshop files can be very large, and maintaining multiple Undo steps can tie up a lot of memory, which tends to degrade performance. However, you can often use the Step Backward and Step Forward commands in the Edit menu to move through multiple steps. Save the file. Your birthday card is done! More about panels and panel locations Photoshop panels are powerful and varied.

Rarely would you need to see all panels simultaneously. The complete list of panels appears in the Window menu. Check marks appear next to the names of the panels that are open and active in their panel groups.

You can open a closed panel or close an open one by selecting the panel name in the Window menu. You can hide all panels at once—including the options bar and Tools panel—by pressing the Tab key.

To reopen them, press Tab again. Note When panels are hidden, a thin, semitransparent strip is visible at the edge of the document. Hovering the pointer over the strip displays its contents. You already used panels in the panel dock when you used the Layers and Swatches panels.

You can drag panels to or from the panel dock. This is convenient for bulky panels or ones that you use only occasionally but want to keep handy. To expand a panel, click its icon or the double arrow.

You can also pull the lower right corner in or out. Note You can collapse, but not resize, the Character and Paragraph panels. Double-click again to restore it to the expanded view. You can open the panel menu even when the panel is collapsed. Notice that the tabs for the panels in the panel group and the button for the panel menu remain visible after you collapse a panel. Special notes about the Tools panel and options bar The Tools panel and the options bar share some characteristics with other panels:.

You can move the options bar to another location by dragging the grab bar at the far left end of the panel. Changing interface settings By default, the panels, dialog boxes, and background in Photoshop are dark. You can lighten the interface or make other changes in the Photoshop Preferences dialog box: 1. Select a different color theme, or make other changes. When you select a different theme, you can see the changes immediately. You can also select specific colors for different screen modes and change other interface settings in this dialog box.

Review questions 1. Describe two types of images you can open in Photoshop. How do you select tools in Photoshop? Describe two ways to zoom in to or out from an image. What are two ways to get more information about Photoshop? Review answers 1.

You can scan a photograph, transparency, negative, or graphic into the program; capture a digital video image; or import artwork created in a drawing program. You can also import digital photos. A selected tool remains active until you select a different tool. To select a hidden tool, either use a keyboard shortcut to toggle through the tools, or click and hold the tool in the Tools panel to open a pop-up menu of the hidden tools.

Choose commands from the View menu to zoom in on or out from an image, or to fit it onscreen, or use the zoom tools and click or drag over an image to enlarge or reduce the view. You can also use keyboard shortcuts or the Navigator panel to control the display of an image. The Photoshop Help system includes full information about Photoshop features plus keyboard shortcuts, task-based topics, and illustrations.

Creative Cloud Learn provides inspiration, key techniques, cross-product workflows, and updates on new features. Photoshop includes a variety of tools and commands for improving the quality of a photographic image.

This lesson steps you through the process of acquiring, resizing, and retouching a vintage photograph.

For many images, you may need only to change the resolution, lighten the image, or repair a minor blemish. For others, you may need to perform several tasks and employ more advanced filters. Note In this lesson, you retouch an image using only Photoshop. For other images, it may be more efficient to work in Adobe Camera Raw, which is installed with Photoshop. Likewise, sharpening should usually be your final step. For the other tasks, consider your project and plan accordingly, so that the results of one process do not cause unintended changes to other aspects of the image, making it necessary for you to redo some of your work.

Whether an image is intended for black-and-white publication on newsprint or for full-color online distribution affects everything from the resolution of the initial scan to the type of tonal range and color correction that the image requires.

Photoshop supports the CMYK color mode for preparing an image to be printed using process colors, as well as RGB and other color modes for web and mobile authoring. Resolution and image size The first step in retouching a photograph in Photoshop is to make sure that the image has an appropriate resolution.

The term resolution refers to the number of small squares, known as pixels, that describe an image and establish its detail. Resolution is determined by pixel dimensions, or the number of pixels along the width and height of an image. Pixels in a photographic image Note To determine the necessary image resolution for a photograph you plan to print, follow the computer-graphics rule of thumb for color or grayscale images intended for print on large commercial printers: Scan at a resolution 1.

In computer graphics, there are different types of resolution: The number of pixels per unit of length in an image is called the image resolution, usually measured in pixels per inch ppi. An image with a high resolution has more pixels and therefore a larger file size than an image of the same dimensions with a low resolution. Images in Photoshop can vary from high resolution ppi or higher to low resolution 72 ppi or 96 ppi. Unless the resolution of your image is exactly the same as the resolution of the monitor, the image size in inches, for example onscreen may be larger or smaller than the image size will be when printed.

The number of pixels per unit of length on a monitor is the monitor resolution, also usually measured in pixels per inch ppi. Image pixels are translated directly into monitor pixels. In Photoshop, if the image resolution is higher than the monitor resolution, the image appears larger onscreen than its specified print dimensions.

The number of ink dots per inch dpi produced by a platesetter or laser printer is the printer, or output, resolution. Higher resolution images output to higher resolution printers generally produce the best quality.

The appropriate resolution for a printed image is determined both by the printer resolution and by the screen frequency, or lines per inch lpi , of the halftone screens used to reproduce images.

Keep in mind that the higher the image resolution, the larger the file size, and the longer the file will take to print or to download from the web. For more information on resolution and image size, see Photoshop Help.

You may make copies of these files and save them under different names or locations, or you may work from the original start files and then download them from the peachpit. In Lesson 1, you used the Open command to open a file. For more information, see page 3. Adobe Bridge opens, displaying a collection of panels, menus, and buttons.

Select the Folders tab in the upper left corner, and then browse to the Lessons folder you downloaded onto your hard disk, so that the lesssons in the Lessons folder appear in the Content panel.

Adding files, folders, application icons, and other assets that you use often to the Favorites panel lets you access them quickly. Select the Favorites tab to open the panel, and click the Lessons folder to open it. Then, in the Content panel, double-click the Lesson02 folder. Thumbnail previews of the folder contents appear in the Content panel.

Compare the 02Start. To enlarge the thumbnails in the Content panel, drag the thumbnail slider at the bottom of the Bridge window to the right. In the 02Start. Double-click the 02Start. Choose Photoshop from the Format menu, and name the file 02Working. You can use either the Crop tool or the Crop command to crop an image.

By default, cropping deletes the cropped pixels. In the Tools panel, select the Crop tool. Tip Deselect the Delete Cropped Pixels option if you want to crop nondestructively, so that you can revise the crop later. Crop handles appear, and a cropping shield covers the area outside the cropping selection.

Ratio is the default value. A crop grid appears. Click Straighten in the options bar. The pointer changes to the Straighten tool. All you need to do is download the course and open the PDF file. This specific program is classified in the Graphics category where you can find some other similar courses. Thanks to people like you? Who share their knowledge, you can discover the extent of our being selected to easily learn without spending a fortune!

Adobe Photoshop CC But also many other tutorials are accessible just as easily! In the image window, drag the Spot Healing Brush down from the top of the crease. You can probably repair the entire crease with four to six neat downward strokes. Zoom in to see the white hair in the upper right area of the image. Then select the Spot Healing Brush again, and paint over the hair. Zoom out, if necessary, to see the full sky.

Then click the Spot Healing Brush wherever there are dark areas you want to heal. Save your work so far. Applying a content-aware patch Use the Patch tool to remove unwanted elements from an image.

In ContentAware mode, the Patch tool creates nearly seamless blending with the nearby content. Type 4 into the Structure slider. The Structure menu determines how closely the patch reflects the existing image patterns. You can choose from 1 to 7, with 1 allowing the loosest adherence to the source structure and 7 requiring the strictest.

Drag the Patch tool around the boy and his shadow, as closely as possible. You may want to zoom in to see him more clearly. Photoshop displays a preview of the content that will replace the boy. Release the mouse button when the patch is positioned where you want it. The selection changes to match the area around it. The boy is gone, and where he stood is a section of the bridge wall and of a building.

The effect was pretty impressive, but not quite perfect. Repairing areas with the Clone Stamp tool The Clone Stamp tool uses pixels from one area of an image to replace the pixels in another part of the image. Using this tool, you can not only remove unwanted objects from your images, but you can also fill in missing areas in photographs you scan from damaged originals.

Make sure that the Aligned option is selected. Move the Clone Stamp tool to an area where the top of the bridge wall is smooth. When you press Alt or Option, the pointer appears as target cross-hairs. Drag the Clone Stamp tool across the top of the bridge wall in the patched area to even it out, and then release the mouse button.

Each time you click the Clone Stamp tool, it begins again with a new source point, in the same relationship to the tool as the first stroke you made. That is, if you begin painting further right, it samples from stone that is further right than the original source point. Deselect Aligned if you want to start from the same source point each time. Select a source point where the bottom of the bridge wall is even, and then drag the Clone Stamp tool across the bottom of the wall where you patched it.

Select a smaller brush size, and deselect Aligned. Then select a source point over the rightmost windows in the lowest row on the building you patched.

Click across to create accurate windows there. Repeat step 6 to make any adjustments you want to apply to the lowest area of the building and the wall that runs in front of it.

If you like, you can use a smaller brush size to touch up the stones in the patched portion of the wall. Sharpening the image The last task you might want to do when retouching a photo is to sharpen the image. There are several ways to sharpen an image in Photoshop, but the Smart Sharpen filter gives you the most control. The colored dots you see are artifacts of the scanning process.

The Threshold value determines how dissimilar the pixels should be before they are eliminated. The Radius value determines the size of the area searched for dissimilar pixels. The default values are great for tiny dots of color like the ones in this image.

Now that the artifacts are gone, you can sharpen the image. In the Smart Sharpen dialog box, make sure that Preview is selected, so you can see the effect of settings you adjust in the image window. You can drag inside the preview window in the dialog box to see different parts of the image, or use the plus and minus buttons below the thumbnail to zoom in and out.

Make sure Lens Blur is chosen in the Remove menu. Lens Blur provides finer sharpening of detail and reduced sharpening halos. Gaussian Blur increases contrast along the edges in an image. Motion Blur reduces the effects of blur that resulted from the camera or the subject moving when the photo was taken. Drag the Radius slider to about 1. The Radius value determines the number of pixels surrounding the edge pixels that affect the sharpening.

The higher the resolution, the higher the Radius setting should usually be. Your image is ready to share or print! Extra credit. Converting a color image to black and white You can get great results converting a color image to black and white with or without a tint in Photoshop.

Click Open. Adjust the color sliders to change the saturation of color channels. You can also experiment with options from the preset menu, such as Darker or Infrared.

Or, select the tool in the upper left corner of the Adjustments panel, position it over an area you want to adjust, and drag horizontally to lighten or darken that color wherever it appears in the image. We darkened the bike itself and made the background areas lighter.

If you want to colorize the entire photo with a single hue, select Tint. What does resolution mean? What does the Crop tool do? How can you adjust the tone and color of an image in Photoshop?

What tools can you use to remove blemishes in an image? How can you remove digital artifacts such as colored pixels from an image? The term resolution refers to the number of pixels that describe an image and establish its detail. Image resolution and monitor resolution are measured in pixels per inch ppi. Printer, or output, resolution is measured in ink dots per inch dpi. You can use the Crop tool to trim, scale, or straighten an image. To adjust the tone and color of an image in Photoshop, first use the White Point tool in a Curves adjustment layer.

Then refine the tone using a Levels adjustment layer. The Clone Stamp tool copies the source area exactly; the Healing Brush and Spot Healing Brush tools blend the area with the surrounding pixels. In Content-Aware mode, the Patch tool replaces a selection with content that matches the surrounding area. Learning how to select areas of an image is of primary importance—you must first select what you want to affect.

About selecting and selection tools Making changes to an area within an image in Photoshop is a two-step process. You first use one of the selection tools to select the part of an image you want to change.

Then you use another tool, filter, or other feature to make changes, such as moving the selected pixels to another location or applying a filter to the selected area.

You can make selections based on size, shape, and color. When a selection is active, changes you make apply only to the selected area; other areas are unaffected.

There are four primary types of selections: Geometric selections The Rectangular Marquee tool selects a rectangular area in an image. The Elliptical Marquee tool , which is hidden behind the Rectangular Marquee tool, selects elliptical areas. The Single Row Marquee tool and Single Column Marquee tool select either a 1-pixel-high row or a 1-pixel-wide column, respectively. Freehand selections The Lasso tool traces a freehand selection around an area.

The Polygonal Lasso tool sets anchor points in straight-line segments around an area. The Magnetic Lasso tool works something like a combination of the other two lasso tools, and gives the best results when good contrast exists between the area you want to select and its surroundings. Color-based selections The Magic Wand tool selects parts of an image based on the similarity in pixel color. It is useful for selecting odd-shaped areas that share a specific range of colors.

In the Favorites panel, click the Lessons folder. Then double-click the Lesson03 folder in the Content panel to see its contents. Study the 03End. Move the thumbnail slider to the right if you want to see the image in more detail. The project is a shadowbox that includes a piece of coral, a sand dollar, a mussel, a nautilus, and a plate of small shells. The challenge in this lesson is to arrange these elements, which were scanned together on the single page you see in the 03Start.

Double-click the 03Start. Using the Quick Selection tool The Quick Selection tool provides one of the easiest ways to make a selection. You simply paint an area of an image, and the tool automatically finds the edges. You can add or subtract areas of the selection until you have exactly the area you want.

The image of the sand dollar in the 03Working. Select the Zoom tool in the Tools panel, and then zoom in so that you can see the sand dollar well. Select the Quick Selection tool in the Tools panel. Select Auto-Enhance in the options bar.

When Auto-Enhance is selected, the Quick Selection tool creates better quality selections, with edges that are truer to the object. The selection process is a little slower than using the Quick Selection tool without Auto-Enhance, but the results are superior.

Click on an off-white area near the outside edge of the sand dollar. The Quick Selection tool finds the full edge automatically, selecting the entire sand dollar. Leave the selection active so that you can use it in the next exercise.

The rest of the image is not affected by those changes. To move the selected area to another part of the composition, you use the Move tool. This image has only one layer, so the pixels you move will replace the pixels beneath them. If the sand dollar is not still selected, repeat the previous exercise to select it. Zoom out so you can see both the shadowbox and the sand dollar. Select the Move tool. Notice that the sand dollar remains selected. Unless a selection tool is active, clicking elsewhere in the image will not deselect the active area.

Tool tips from the Photoshop evangelist. Julieanne Kost is an official Adobe Photoshop evangelist. The layers that are under the pointer appear in the context menu. Manipulating selections You can move selections, reposition them as you create them, and even duplicate them. One of the most useful things you may find in this section is the introduction of keyboard shortcuts that can save you time and arm motions.

Repositioning a selection marquee while creating it Selecting ovals and circles can be tricky. As you perform this exercise, be very careful to follow the directions about keeping the mouse button or specific keys pressed. If you accidentally release the mouse button at the wrong time, simply start the exercise again from step 1. Select the Elliptical Marquee tool , hidden under the Rectangular Marquee tool. Move the pointer over the plate of shells, and drag diagonally across the oval plate to create a selection, but do not release the mouse button.

If you accidentally release the mouse button, draw the selection again. In most cases— including this one—the new selection replaces the previous one. Still holding down the mouse button, press the spacebar, and continue to drag the selection. Position it so that it more closely aligns with the plate. Carefully release the spacebar but not the mouse button and continue to drag, trying to make the size and shape of the selection match the oval plate of shells as closely as possible.

If necessary, hold down the spacebar again and drag to move the selection marquee into position around the plate of shells. When the selection border is positioned appropriately, release the mouse button. Leave the Elliptical Marquee tool and the selection active for the next exercise. If the plate of shells is not still selected, repeat the previous exercise to select it. The pointer icon now includes a pair of scissors cut from its current location.

Note You can release the Ctrl or Command key after you start dragging, and the Move tool remains active. Photoshop reverts to the previously selected tool when you deselect, whether you click outside the selection or use the Deselect command.

Moving a selection with the arrow keys You can make minor adjustments to the position of selected pixels by using the arrow keys. You can nudge the selection in increments of either one pixel or ten pixels. When a selection tool is active in the Tools panel, the arrow keys nudge the selection border, but not the contents.

When the Move tool is active, the arrow keys move both the selection border and its contents. Before you begin, make sure that the plate of shells is still selected in the image window.

Press the Up Arrow key on your keyboard a few times to move the oval upward. Notice that each time you press the arrow key, the plate of shells moves one pixel. Experiment by pressing the other arrow keys to see how they affect the selection. Hold down the Shift key as you press an arrow key. When you hold down the Shift key, the selection moves ten pixels every time you press an arrow key. Sometimes the border around a selected area can distract you as you make adjustments.

Either command hides the selection border around the plate of shells. Using the Magic Wand tool The Magic Wand tool selects all the pixels of a particular color or color range. As with many of the selection tools, after you make the initial selection, you can add or subtract areas of the selection. The Tolerance option sets the sensitivity of the Magic Wand tool.

This value limits or extends the range of pixel similarity. The default tolerance value of 32 selects the color you click plus 32 lighter and 32 darker tones of that color. You may need to adjust the tolerance level up or down depending on the color ranges and variations in the image.

If a multicolored area that you want to select is set against a background of a different color, it can be much easier to select the background than the area itself. Select the Rectangular Marquee tool , hidden behind the Elliptical Marquee tool.

Drag a selection around the piece of coral. Make sure that your selection is large enough so that a margin of white appears between the coral and the edges of the marquee. At this point, the coral and the white background area are selected.

Select the Magic Wand tool , hidden under the Quick Selection tool. In the options bar, confirm that the Tolerance value is This value determines the range of colors the wand selects.

Click the Subtract From Selection button in the options bar. A minus sign appears next to the wand in the pointer icon. Anything you select now will be subtracted from the initial selection.

Click in the white background area within the selection marquee. The Magic Wand tool selects the entire background, subtracting it from the selection. Now all the white pixels are deselected, leaving the coral perfectly selected. Softening the edges of a selection To smooth the hard edges of a selection, you can apply anti-aliasing or feathering, or use the Refine Edge option. Anti-aliasing smooths the jagged edges of a selection by softening the color transition between edge pixels and background pixels.

Since only the edge pixels change, no detail is lost. Anti-aliasing is useful when cutting, copying, and pasting selections to create composite images. Select the tool to display its options in the options bar. To apply anti-aliasing, you must select the option before making the selection. Once a selection is made, you cannot add antialiasing to it. Feathering blurs edges by building a transition boundary between the selection and its surrounding pixels.

This blurring can cause some loss of detail at the edge of the selection. You can define feathering for the marquee and lasso tools as you use them, or you can add feathering to an existing selection. Feathering effects become apparent when you move, cut, or copy the selection.

You can use the Refine Edge option to smooth the outline, feather it, or contract or expand it. Enter a Feather value in the options bar. This value defines the width of the feathered edge and can range from 1 to pixels. Enter a value for the Feather Radius, and click OK. Selecting with the lasso tools As we mentioned earlier, Photoshop includes three lasso tools: the Lasso tool, the Polygonal Lasso tool, and the Magnetic Lasso tool.

You can use the Lasso tool to make selections that require both freehand and straight lines, using keyboard shortcuts to move back and forth between the Lasso tool and the Polygonal Lasso tool.

Make sure you can see the entire mussel in the window. Starting at the lower left section of the mussel, drag. Do not release the mouse button. Press the Alt Windows or Option Mac OS key, and then release the mouse button so that the lasso pointer changes to the polygonal lasso shape.

Do not release the Alt or Option key. Begin clicking along the end of the mussel to place anchor points, following the contours of the mussel.

Be sure to hold down the Alt or Option key throughout this process. The selection border automatically stretches like a rubber band between anchor points. When you reach the tip of the mussel, hold down the mouse button as you release the Alt or Option key. The pointer again appears as the lasso icon. Carefully drag around the tip of the mussel, holding down the mouse button.

When you finish tracing the tip and reach the lower side of the mussel, first press Alt or Option again, and then release the mouse button. Click along the lower side of the mussel with the Polygonal Lasso tool as you did on the top. Continue to trace the mussel until you arrive back at the starting point of your selection near the left end of the image. Click the starting point of the selection, and then release Alt or Option.

The mussel is now entirely selected. Leave the mussel selected for the next exercise. Note To make sure that the selection is the shape you want when you use the Lasso tool, end the selection by dragging across the starting point of the selection.

If you start and stop the selection at different points, Photoshop draws a straight line between the start and end points of the selection. Before you begin, make sure that the mussel is still selected. The mussel and selection marquee are enclosed in a bounding box. Move the pointer outside the bounding box so that it becomes a curved, doubleheaded arrow. Drag to rotate the mussel to a degree angle.

You can verify the angle in the Rotate box in the options bar. Press Enter or Return to commit the transformation. If necessary, select the Move tool and drag to reposition the mussel, leaving a shadow to match the others. Selecting with the Magnetic Lasso tool You can use the Magnetic Lasso tool to make freehand selections of areas with highcontrast edges.

When you draw with the Magnetic Lasso tool, the selection border automatically snaps to the edge between areas of contrast. You can also control the selection path by occasionally clicking the mouse to place anchor points in the selection border.

Select the Magnetic Lasso tool , hidden under the Lasso tool. Click once along the left edge of the nautilus, and then move the Magnetic Lasso tool along the edge to trace its outline. Tip In low-contrast areas, you may want to click to place your own fastening points. You can add as many as you need. To remove the most recent fastening point, press Delete, and then move the mouse back to the remaining fastening point and continue selecting.

When you reach the left side of the nautilus again, double-click to return the Magnetic Lasso tool to the starting point, closing the selection. Or you can move the Magnetic Lasso tool over the starting point and click once. Double-click the Hand tool to fit the image in the image window. Make sure that you can see the entire screw head in your image window. Select the Elliptical Marquee tool in the Tools panel. Move the pointer to the approximate center of the screw.

Click and begin dragging. Then, without releasing the mouse button, press Alt Windows or Option Mac OS as you continue dragging the selection to the outer edge of the screw. The selection is centered over its starting point.

When you have the entire screw head selected, release the mouse button first, and then release Alt or Option and the Shift key if you used it. Tip To select a perfect circle, press Shift as you drag.

Hold down Shift while dragging the Rectangular Marquee tool to select a perfect square. If necessary, reposition the selection border using one of the methods you learned earlier. If you accidentally released the Alt or Option key before you released the. Before you begin, make sure that the screw is still selected. Select the Move tool in the Tools panel.

Position the pointer within the screw selection. The pointer becomes an arrow with a pair of scissors , indicating that dragging the selection will cut it from its current location and move it to the new location. Drag the screw onto the lower right corner of the shadowbox. A bounding box appears around the selection. Then press Enter or Return to commit the change and remove the transformation bounding box. As you resize the object, the selection marquee resizes, too.

Use the Move tool to reposition the screw after resizing it, so that it is centered in the corner of the shadowbox frame. Moving and duplicating a selection simultaneously You can move and duplicate a selection at the same time.

If the screw is no longer selected, reselect it now, using the techniques you learned earlier. The pointer changes, displaying the usual black arrow and an additional white arrow, which indicates that a duplicate will be made when you move the selection. Continue holding down the Alt or Option key as you drag a duplicate of the screw straight up to the top right corner of the frame. Pressing the Shift key as you move a selection constrains the movement horizontally or vertically in degree increments.

Repeat step 3 to drag a fourth screw to the lower left corner of the frame. Copying selections You can use the Move tool to copy selections as you drag them within or between images, or you can copy and move selections using the Copy, Copy Merged, Paste, and Paste Into commands.

Dragging with the Move tool saves memory, because the clipboard is not used as it is with the commands. The source selection is pasted onto a new layer, and the destination selection border is converted into a layer mask. Thanks to people like you? Who share their knowledge, you can discover the extent of our being selected to easily learn without spending a fortune! Adobe Photoshop CC But also many other tutorials are accessible just as easily! Computer PDF is also courses for training in adobe photoshop, illustrator, gimp, Image editing and drawing, 3D computer graphics and many others IT.

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